The Indian History has been broadly divided into three distinct periods mentioned in below:
- Ancient India
- Medieval India
- Modern India
History of Modern India is sub-divided into two major periods
- The British Period
- The Indian Freedom and partition of India
Full details about Ancient India:
Indus Valley Civilization:
- The most major period of ancient Indian history is the development of Indus valley civilization.
- Indus valley Civilization was developed on the banks of river Indus; it was extended from Jammu in the north to Ahmednagar in the south, and covered various regions of Gujarat.
- In this civilization, the main sites which have been found in the excavation, kalibanagan in Rajasthan, lothal in Gujarat, Banwali in Haryana and Ropar in Punjab.
- An Indus valley Civilization period lies between 3000BC and 1500BC. The Main sites were associated with its are Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro and Lothal.
- The main Purpose of this Indus valley civilization was the town planning, there were includes many projects such as great building, well planned roads, cities and drainage system.
Indus Valley Civilization important point:
- Indus valley Civilization was earliest civilization that flourished in India on the bank of the river Indus, from frontiers extending from manda on the Chenab near Jammu in the north to daimabad, on the Godavari in Ahmednagar in the south.
- Time Period –Between 2500BC and 1800BC
- Cities Covered by Indus Valley Civilization: Almost more than 800 cities related to Harapan civilization have been discovered. And some important ones are mentioned in below:
- It was located on the bank of Ravi in Punjab was the first settlement where the Indus Valley civilization was discovered. In terms of its size and variety of objects discovered, it ranks as the premier city of the Indus Civilization.
- It was located in Sind on the bank of Indus is the largest known Indus City. Most of the information about Indus Civilization is derived from the study of the town planning, house, seals and sealing from the place.
- It was similar to Mohenjodaro, the main sites of kailbangan in Rajasthan Excavated in 1960s seems to have been a provincial capital.
The Lothal site was in Gujarat an outpost for sea-trade with the contemporary West Asian Civilization.
It was located towards the east in the Ganga –Yamuna Doab.
Features of Indus Civilization:
Political: There was a central Government, as per the evidence from the existence of assembly hall and citadels.
Society: In this civilization, the people had a highly developed artistic sense which is reflected in their pottery, and painting on vases.
Planning of town: Developed great Building, doubles-storeyed dwellings, and drainage system were in existence. There were planned cities and road.
The Vedic Period –Important point
- Early Vedic Age (1500BC-1000BC)
- Early Vedic Age is marked by the entry by Aryans, who are originally inhabitants of Central Asia around the Caspian Sea and probably came through Hindukush Mountains.
- Periods lies between 2500-2000BC
Features of Aryans were:
- Aryans was the admires of nature and worshiped sun, fire and water. And Yagna was a major part of their region.
- Time Period: Between 2500-2000BC
They had read religious books:
- Oldest and contained prayers of god, vayu, Indra and again
- Sam Veda dealt with music
- Dealt with formulae and rituals
- Dealt with medicine
- Contained details of Aryan civilization, like their rituals, traditions and formulae etc.
- And the Upanishads, Brahmans and Aranyaks are the famous religious books of Aryans.
The later Vedic Period:
- Time period -2000-700BC
Important features of Vedic Period:
- Vedic period is also known as the period of Brahmanical Age which resembles modern –day.
- By Vedic period, Society was divided into four castes:
- Above cast was divided by work they did in the mentioned order of preference like, Brahmins were the priestly class, Kshatriyas were the fighter, visas were the business, and sudras were represented the labour class.
- In the Vedic period, Two Epics were written in this period, namely Mahabharat by Ved Vyas and Ramayana by Maharishi Valmiki.
Important Empires and Dynasties:
|Empire/Dynasty||Time period||Important Features|
|Magadha empire||Around 542BC||Prominent King were Bimbisara, Ajashatru, Shishunga and Nanda|
Both of Kaling: 261 BC
|321-232 BC||It was founded by Chandragupta maurya, Ashokawas the other prominent king of this dynasty|
|Gupta dynasty||AD 320-550||Prominent king were Chandragupta I, Samundragupta and Chandragupta II|
|Harshavardhan||AD 606-647||The last Hindu king of North India|
|Rajputs||AD 650-120||Prithiv Raj Chauhan and jaichand Rathore|
- These are the most hallowed books of early Aryans. There were four Vedas and the Brahmanas implicated with these vedas are mentioned in below:
- Rig Veda –Aitaraya Brahamana and kaushboitika brahman book of Hymns.
- Sama Veda –jaminya Brahamana and Tandyamaha Brahamana book of malodies and charts
- Yajur Ved-Satpatha Brahamana book of sacrifices
- Atharva Ved-Gopatha Brahamana book of magical and technical formulae
- The Brahamanas: The Socio –Political life of the Aryans and form a sort of explanation of their religion.
- The Aranyakas: Forest books or treatises on mysticism and philosophy and are the concluding portion of the brahmanas.
- The Upanishadas
- The Puranas
- Manu Smrirti
Rise of Religions:
- Started by a Kshatriya prince of the Shakya clan, Siddhartha. Later came to be known as Buddha around 6th century BC, Who was born at lumbin.
- He was the son of King Shuddhodhana.
- Buddha went in search of truth and attained enlightenment under a popular treat Bodh Gya, and it delivered his first sermons at Sarnath in UP. There are many sects of Buddhism, out of which three are important:
- Mahayana –Mahayan believes Buddha to be god.
- Hinyan –it does not believe that the Buddha was a god.
- Vajrayan: it is the Tantric from of Busshism, recent present in laddakh and Bhutan
- The main Buddhist instructs are: The eightfold path of right faith, thought, action, livelihood, efforts, speech, remembrance and concentration, belief in nirvana, Ahimsa, law of karma.
- Started by rishabha, it was attained peak under Vardhamana Mahavira. Mahavira was born at Kundagrama in 540 BC in present day Bihar, and attained perfect knowledge, Kaivalya, after the become ascetic at the age of 30.
Jainsm is also divided into two sects like
Main features of Jainisim are:
- Right Knowledge
- Right faith
- Right conduct
- Belief in Karma and belief in Ahimsa