Geography fact about world for SSC, Bank, IAS and UPSC Exam-General Knowledge

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Now here we are going to represent about Basic geographical facts asked in various competitive exams like UPSC, IAS, SSC, SSC CGL, CLAT and another exam. So those students are going to participate in an upcoming competitive exam must check this article.

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Physical Geography important point:

Planets:The definition of planets, the revolving around the sun is called planets. There are total eight known planets.

  • Mercury- mercury is closest to the sun and is the fastest planet to revolve around the Sun
  • Venus- It is the Brightest and the hottest planet in all
  • Earth- One only known planet to possess life
  • Mars- mars is known as the Red planet. Explored for life by astronomers now, as it is having similarities with the earth
  • Jupiter- Largest Planet of the all solar systems
  • Saturn-it is the sixth planet from the sun and the second largest planet in the solar system.
  • Uranus
  • Neptune

Note- Pluto used to be a planet, but recently has been discarded as a planet and it’s no longer counted as a planet.


These are celestial bodies that move around the sun. Two most popular comets known, are as mentioned:

  • Halley’s comet: It was discovered by British astronomer Edmond Halley, takes 76.1 years to encircle the sun. It was last seen on 9 February 1986.
  • Smith-Tuttle comet- Huge comet heading on a collision course with earth on August 17, 2116.


 Definition of Satellities, these are the bodies which revolve around the planets. Mercury and Venus have no    satellites. Earth has only one natural satellite, the Moon. Jupiter has the maximum number of satellites.


Moon first planet of our solar system visited by man. On July 20, 1969, Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin were the first to reach foot on the moon, and between them, Neil Armstrong is the first person to have set foot on the moon.


Earth shapes defined is as an oblate spheroid, like a ball which is flattened at the poles.

Important point about Earth Planet:

  • Distance from the sun almost 1, 49, 407, 000 km
  • Total time taken by Earth to revolve around the sun: 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 45.51 seconds.
  • Total Time taken by Earth for rotating on its own axis: 23 hour 56 minutes and approx 4.09 Sec.
  • Earth is covered 70 percent by water and 30 percent by Land.

Movement of Earth:

  • The earth revolves around the sun is an elliptical orbit. One complete revolution is called a year and this revolution of Earth causes changes of seasons.
  • The earth rotates on its own imaginary axis also, simultaneously revolving around the sun. The earth moves from west to east. This causes day and night.

Note down– Duration of days and nights is equal at the equator


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Solar eclipse: it happens when the Moon comes between the sun and the Earth, and its this effect hindrance is sun’s light, when viewed from the earth.

Lunar eclipse: When the Earth comes between the Moon and the Sun,  which Shadow cast by the Earth on the Moon causes called Lunar eclipse.


  • The Earth is encircled by a gaseous cover called the atmosphere. There are various gases in the atmosphere such as Oxygen, Nitrozen, Carbon Dioxide, Helium, Argon, Xenon, etc.
  • As your knowledge, Atmosphere is divided mainly into four Layers:


  • The troposphere is the nearest layer to the Earth’s Surface and is up to 15 km of height from the Earth’s surface.


  • The stratosphere layer is from the end of 15 Km of Troposphere, stratosphere is present till 50 Km of the atmosphere


  • Lies between 50 Km and 80 Km above the surface of the Earth.


  • Above the mesosphere and extend from the 80 Km to 400 Km above the Earth’s Surface. Radio communication takes place because of this Layer.

Ozone Layer:

  • The Ozone layer is located in the stratosphere belt of earth’s atmosphere. The basic Ozone gas structure consists of three oxygen atoms.
  • Basically Ozone gas is present in the stratosphere in the form of a layer, which extend from 12 Km to 30 Km above the Earth’s Surface.
  • As you know that, the ozone layer is that it protects mankind from harmful radiations which comes from under spaces like Ultra Violet radiations from the sun
  • But Now-a-days this layer is getting depleted, which can make skin cancer and damage vegetation.
  • The main reason behind the depletion of this layer is pollution and pollutants present in the atmosphere like chlorofluorocarbons, which comes from the refrigerator, aerosols, air conditioners and solvent.


  • The earth’s surface is made up of big land masses which are divided into seven continents.

The Seven Continents are as mentioned below:

  • Asia: The Asia is the largest continent
  • Africa- It is the Largest desert name as the Sahara.
  • North America
  • South America
  • Antarctica
  • Europe
  • Oceania (Australia): it is the smallest continent, only one continent with capital i.e., Canberra


There are five oceans, on the Earth mentioned below:

  • Pacific
  • Atlantic
  • Indian
  • Arctic
  • Antarctic

 Note down: The South China sea has the maximum area among all the sea of the world


Rocks from the crust of the Earth. Basically rocks are mineral material. They are divided into three broad categories.

  • Igneous rocks: The Igneous constitutes 90% of the Earth’s crust
  • Metamorphic rocks: Original igneous or sedimentary rocks when subject to charge due to pressure or temperature, metamorphose into metamorphic rocks like slate, marble and other material etc.
  • Sedimentary rocks: These rocks are formed from the sedimentary deposit on the ocean beds, like gypsum, limestone etc.

Mountain peaks of the world:

  • Mountain Ranges:
Name of the mountain Continent
Himalaya-Karakoram Asia
Rockies North America
Alps Europe
Andes South America

Mountain peaks:

Name of Mountain Continent Height (In meters)
Everest Asia 8848
K2 Asia 8610
Kanchenjunga Asia 8590
Lhotse Asia 8500
Makalu 1 Asia 8470
Dhaulagiri Asia 8170
Nanga Parbat Asia 8130
Nanda Devi Asia 7820

Important Water Sourse of the world:

Lakes (natural):

Name Location
Caspian (also known as the Caspian sea) Iran, Azerbaijan, Russia and Kazakhstan
Superior (it is the largest water Lake of North America) USA/Canada
Victoria Kenya/Tanzania
Baikal Russia
Titcaca (it is the highest lake in the world) South America

Most Important Canals (Shipping):

Name of Canals Features Location
Panama Canal Its link the Pacific and the Atlantic Central America
Suez Canal Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea Egypt
Kiel Canal Between Baltic Sea and North America Germany

Important Rivers of the World:

Name of the River Length Location
Nile 6690 Egypt
Amazon 6570 Brazil/South America
Mississippi-Missouri 6020 USA/North America
Yangtze-Kiang 5980 China, Asia
Hwang Ho 4840 China, Asia
Niger 4800 Nigeria, Africa
Congo 4800 Zarie, Africa
Murray 3720 Australia
Volga 3700 Russia, Asia
Indus 3180 India, Pakistan, Asia
Brahmaputra 2960 India, Asia
Danube 2820 Austria, Hugary, Europe

Important World cities on river bank:

Name of city Name of River
London Thames
Rome Tiber
Paris Siene
Vienna Danube
Budapest Danube
Belgrade Danube
Baghdad Tigiris

An important Indian cites with river banks:

Name of city Name of River
Delhi Yamuna
Agra Yamuna
Kolkata Hoogle
Kanpur Ganga
Allahabad Ganga and Yamuna
Nasik Godavari
Indore Narmada
Lucknow Gomit
Srinagar Jhelum

Important Link:

Click here to download full geography pdf

Bank exam study material -Indian History pdf download

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The Indian History has been broadly divided into three distinct periods mentioned in below:

  • Ancient India
  • Medieval India
  • Modern India


History of Modern India is sub-divided into two major periods

  • The British Period
  • The Indian Freedom and partition of India

Full details about Ancient India:

Indus Valley Civilization:

  • The most major period of ancient Indian history is the development of Indus valley civilization.
  • Indus valley Civilization was developed on the banks of river Indus; it was extended from Jammu in the north to Ahmednagar in the south, and covered various regions of Gujarat.
  • In this civilization, the main sites which have been found in the excavation, kalibanagan in Rajasthan, lothal in Gujarat, Banwali in Haryana and Ropar in Punjab.
  • An Indus valley Civilization period lies between 3000BC and 1500BC. The Main sites were associated with its are Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro and Lothal.
  • The main Purpose of this Indus valley civilization was the town planning, there were includes many projects such as great building, well planned roads, cities and drainage system.

Indus Valley Civilization important point:

  • Indus valley Civilization was earliest civilization that flourished in India on the bank of the river Indus, from frontiers extending from manda on the Chenab near Jammu in the north to daimabad, on the Godavari in Ahmednagar in the south.
  • Time Period –Between 2500BC and 1800BC
  • Cities Covered by Indus Valley Civilization: Almost more than 800 cities related to Harapan civilization have been discovered. And some important ones are mentioned in below:


  • It was located on the bank of Ravi in Punjab was the first settlement where the Indus Valley civilization was discovered. In terms of its size and variety of objects discovered, it ranks as the premier city of the Indus Civilization.


  • It was located in Sind on the bank of Indus is the largest known Indus City. Most of the information about Indus Civilization is derived from the study of the town planning, house, seals and sealing from the place.


  • It was similar to Mohenjodaro, the main sites of kailbangan in Rajasthan Excavated in 1960s seems to have been a provincial capital.


The Lothal site was in Gujarat an outpost for sea-trade with the contemporary West Asian Civilization.


It was located towards the east in the Ganga –Yamuna Doab.

Features of Indus Civilization:

Political: There was a central Government, as per the evidence from the existence of assembly hall and citadels.

Society: In this civilization, the people had a highly developed artistic sense which is reflected in their pottery, and painting on vases.

Planning of town: Developed great Building, doubles-storeyed dwellings, and drainage system were in existence. There were planned cities and road.

The Vedic Period –Important point

  • Early Vedic Age (1500BC-1000BC)
  • Early Vedic Age is marked by the entry by Aryans, who are originally inhabitants of Central Asia around the Caspian Sea and probably came through Hindukush Mountains.
  • Periods lies between 2500-2000BC

Features of Aryans were:

  • Aryans was the admires of nature and worshiped sun, fire and water. And Yagna was a major part of their region.
  • Time Period: Between 2500-2000BC

They had read religious books:

Rig Veda:

  • Oldest and contained prayers of god, vayu, Indra and again

Sam Veda:

  • Sam Veda dealt with music

Yajus Veda:

  • Dealt with formulae and rituals

Atharva Veda:

  • Dealt with medicine

The Puranas:

  • Contained details of Aryan civilization, like their rituals, traditions and formulae etc.
  • And the Upanishads, Brahmans and Aranyaks are the famous religious books of Aryans.

The later Vedic Period:

  • Time period -2000-700BC

Important features of Vedic Period:

  • Vedic period is also known as the period of Brahmanical Age which resembles modern –day.
  • By Vedic period, Society was divided into four castes:





  • Above cast was divided by work they did in the mentioned order of preference like, Brahmins were the priestly class, Kshatriyas were the fighter, visas were the business, and sudras were represented the labour class.
  • In the Vedic period, Two Epics were written in this period, namely Mahabharat by Ved Vyas and Ramayana by Maharishi Valmiki.

Important Empires and Dynasties:

Empire/Dynasty Time period Important Features
Magadha empire Around 542BC Prominent King were Bimbisara, Ajashatru, Shishunga and Nanda
Mauryan Dynstay


Both of Kaling: 261 BC

321-232 BC It was founded by Chandragupta maurya, Ashokawas the other prominent king of this dynasty
Gupta dynasty AD 320-550 Prominent king were Chandragupta I, Samundragupta and Chandragupta II
Harshavardhan AD 606-647 The last Hindu king of North India
Rajputs AD 650-120 Prithiv Raj Chauhan and jaichand Rathore

Religious book:

  • These are the most hallowed books of early Aryans. There were four Vedas and the Brahmanas implicated with these vedas are mentioned in below:
  • Rig Veda –Aitaraya Brahamana and kaushboitika brahman  book of Hymns.
  • Sama Veda –jaminya Brahamana and Tandyamaha Brahamana book of malodies and charts
  • Yajur Ved-Satpatha Brahamana book of sacrifices
  • Atharva Ved-Gopatha Brahamana book of magical and technical formulae
  • The Brahamanas: The Socio –Political life of the Aryans and form a sort of explanation of their religion.
  • The Aranyakas: Forest books or treatises on mysticism and philosophy and are the concluding portion of the brahmanas.
  • The Upanishadas
  • The Puranas
  • Manu Smrirti

Rise of Religions:


Important features:

  • Started by a Kshatriya prince of the Shakya clan, Siddhartha. Later came to be known as Buddha around 6th century BC, Who was born at lumbin.
  • He was the son of King Shuddhodhana.
  • Buddha went in search of truth and attained enlightenment under a popular treat Bodh Gya, and it delivered his first sermons at Sarnath in UP. There are many sects of Buddhism, out of which three are important:
  • Mahayana –Mahayan believes Buddha to be god.
  • Hinyan –it does not believe that the Buddha was a god.
  • Vajrayan: it is the Tantric from of Busshism, recent present in laddakh and Bhutan
  • The main Buddhist instructs are: The eightfold path of right faith, thought, action, livelihood, efforts, speech, remembrance and concentration, belief in nirvana, Ahimsa, law of karma.


  • Started by rishabha, it was attained peak under Vardhamana Mahavira. Mahavira was born at Kundagrama in 540 BC in present day Bihar, and attained perfect knowledge, Kaivalya, after the become ascetic at the age of 30.

Jainsm is also divided into two sects like

  • Digambars
  • Shwetaambara

Main features of Jainisim are:

  • Right Knowledge
  • Right faith
  • Right conduct
  • Belief in Karma and belief in Ahimsa

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