Science General Knowledge for SSC, UPSC and IAS exam

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Again back with new update regarding general knowledge, as you know there are many topics cover in General knowledge section such as general science gk, Sports GK, Geographical fact about India, National and international organization, important books and author, Important abbreviation, important sobriquets, important fact about world and India and other topics. Today we are going to discuss about General Science GK includes many topics like various important branches of Science, Important units and measurement, Medical discoveries, Important scientific inventions, Scientific instrument, Important vaccines, important point about human body and vitamins , and various diseases.

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Important Branches of Science:

Name of Science Its related to
Acoustics Sound and sound waves
Aeronautics Activities of flying 
Agronomy Production of crops and soil management
Anatomy Dissertational learning of animal and human body
Anthropology Origin, culture and physical development of man 
Archaeology Study of material remains of past as proofs
Astronautics Space vehicles and traveling in space 
 Astronomy Planets
Biology Science of living organism
Botany Plants
Cardiology Heart and related diseases
Ceramics Manufacturing  of clay objects
Cetology Aquatic mammals, especially the whales
Cosmology Universe
Cryogenics Studying effects of low temperature
Cytology Structure and function of cells
Dactylogy Study of fingerprints
Dermatology Skin
Dietetics Diet and nutrition
Ecology Organisms and environment relationship
Entomology Insects
Endocrinology Endocrine glands
Etymology Origin and History
Genetics Heredity and its laws
Geology Earth’s structure (Chemical and physical)
Gerontology Ageing process, problems and diseases
Gynecology Female diseases of reproductive system
Heamatology Blood and related disorders
Histology Tissues
Immunology Body’s immune system
Morphology External structure of living organisms
Mycology Fungi and fungal diseases
Nephrology Kidney
Obstetrics Pregnancy, child birth and their follow up 
Ornithology Birds
Orthopedics Human skeletal system
Osteology Study of bones
Paediatrics Child diseases
Paleontology Fossils and ancient life-forms 
Pathology Mechanisms and manifestation of diseases
Pharmacology Drugs and their effect on the body
Physiology Life processes of various organs of living begins
Psychiatry Mental disorders
Semiology Sign language and signs
Seismology Earthquakes
Theology Religions
Toxicology Toxic substance and poisons
Zoology Animal life
Zymology Fermentation process

Important Units with measurement:

Name of units Used to measure
Ampere Electric current
Angstrom Wavelength of light
Bar Atmospheric pressure
Calorie Quantity of heat
Candela Luminous intensity
Celsius Temperature
Coulomb Electric charge
Decibel Sound level
Dyne Force
Erg Work
Fahrenheit Temperature
Fathom Depth of Water
Faraday Electric charge
Gauss Magnetic induction
Henry Inductance
Hertz Frequency
Horsepower Power
Joule Work of Energy
Kelvin Temperature
Light year Distance
Newton Force ( SI Unit)
Ohm Electrical resistance
Pascal Pressure
Poise Viscosity
Volt Electrical potential
Watt Power

Medical discovers:

Discovery Discovered by
Penicillin Alexander Fleming
Aspirin Felix Hoffmann
Blood circulation William Harvey
Blood group K.Landsteiner
Cholera Robert Koch
Electro cardiogram (ECG) Williem Einthoven
Heart transplant surgery Christian Barnard
Malaria germs A. Laveran
Ultrasound Ian Donald

Important Scientific Inventions:

Name of invention Name of inventor
Aero plane Wright Brothers
Bicycle K. Macmillan
Centigrade scale A.Celsius
Computer Charles Babbage
Diesel Engine Rudolf Diesel
Dynamite Alfred Nobel
Dynamo Michael Faraday
Electric Lamp Thomas Alva Edison
Fountain Pen L.E. Waterman
Gramophone Thomas Alva Edison
Jet engine Sir Frank Whittle
Microphone David Hughes
Microscope Z. Jansen
Radium Marie and Pierre Curie
Safety lamp Sir Humphery Davy
Safety Pin William Hurst
Sewing machine B. Thimmonnier
Shorthand (Modem) Sir Isaac pitman
Steam Engine Thomas Newcome
Telegraph code Samuel F.B. Morse
Telephone Alexander Graham bell
Telescope Hans Lippershey
Television John Logie Baird
Thermometer Galileo Galilei
X-ray Wilhelm Roentgen

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Geography fact about world for SSC, Bank, IAS and UPSC Exam-General Knowledge

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Now here we are going to represent about Basic geographical facts asked in various competitive exams like UPSC, IAS, SSC, SSC CGL, CLAT and another exam. So those students are going to participate in an upcoming competitive exam must check this article.

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Physical Geography important point:

Planets:The definition of planets, the revolving around the sun is called planets. There are total eight known planets.

  • Mercury- mercury is closest to the sun and is the fastest planet to revolve around the Sun
  • Venus- It is the Brightest and the hottest planet in all
  • Earth- One only known planet to possess life
  • Mars- mars is known as the Red planet. Explored for life by astronomers now, as it is having similarities with the earth
  • Jupiter- Largest Planet of the all solar systems
  • Saturn-it is the sixth planet from the sun and the second largest planet in the solar system.
  • Uranus
  • Neptune

Note- Pluto used to be a planet, but recently has been discarded as a planet and it’s no longer counted as a planet.


These are celestial bodies that move around the sun. Two most popular comets known, are as mentioned:

  • Halley’s comet: It was discovered by British astronomer Edmond Halley, takes 76.1 years to encircle the sun. It was last seen on 9 February 1986.
  • Smith-Tuttle comet- Huge comet heading on a collision course with earth on August 17, 2116.


 Definition of Satellities, these are the bodies which revolve around the planets. Mercury and Venus have no    satellites. Earth has only one natural satellite, the Moon. Jupiter has the maximum number of satellites.


Moon first planet of our solar system visited by man. On July 20, 1969, Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin were the first to reach foot on the moon, and between them, Neil Armstrong is the first person to have set foot on the moon.


Earth shapes defined is as an oblate spheroid, like a ball which is flattened at the poles.

Important point about Earth Planet:

  • Distance from the sun almost 1, 49, 407, 000 km
  • Total time taken by Earth to revolve around the sun: 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 45.51 seconds.
  • Total Time taken by Earth for rotating on its own axis: 23 hour 56 minutes and approx 4.09 Sec.
  • Earth is covered 70 percent by water and 30 percent by Land.

Movement of Earth:

  • The earth revolves around the sun is an elliptical orbit. One complete revolution is called a year and this revolution of Earth causes changes of seasons.
  • The earth rotates on its own imaginary axis also, simultaneously revolving around the sun. The earth moves from west to east. This causes day and night.

Note down– Duration of days and nights is equal at the equator


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Solar eclipse: it happens when the Moon comes between the sun and the Earth, and its this effect hindrance is sun’s light, when viewed from the earth.

Lunar eclipse: When the Earth comes between the Moon and the Sun,  which Shadow cast by the Earth on the Moon causes called Lunar eclipse.


  • The Earth is encircled by a gaseous cover called the atmosphere. There are various gases in the atmosphere such as Oxygen, Nitrozen, Carbon Dioxide, Helium, Argon, Xenon, etc.
  • As your knowledge, Atmosphere is divided mainly into four Layers:


  • The troposphere is the nearest layer to the Earth’s Surface and is up to 15 km of height from the Earth’s surface.


  • The stratosphere layer is from the end of 15 Km of Troposphere, stratosphere is present till 50 Km of the atmosphere


  • Lies between 50 Km and 80 Km above the surface of the Earth.


  • Above the mesosphere and extend from the 80 Km to 400 Km above the Earth’s Surface. Radio communication takes place because of this Layer.

Ozone Layer:

  • The Ozone layer is located in the stratosphere belt of earth’s atmosphere. The basic Ozone gas structure consists of three oxygen atoms.
  • Basically Ozone gas is present in the stratosphere in the form of a layer, which extend from 12 Km to 30 Km above the Earth’s Surface.
  • As you know that, the ozone layer is that it protects mankind from harmful radiations which comes from under spaces like Ultra Violet radiations from the sun
  • But Now-a-days this layer is getting depleted, which can make skin cancer and damage vegetation.
  • The main reason behind the depletion of this layer is pollution and pollutants present in the atmosphere like chlorofluorocarbons, which comes from the refrigerator, aerosols, air conditioners and solvent.


  • The earth’s surface is made up of big land masses which are divided into seven continents.

The Seven Continents are as mentioned below:

  • Asia: The Asia is the largest continent
  • Africa- It is the Largest desert name as the Sahara.
  • North America
  • South America
  • Antarctica
  • Europe
  • Oceania (Australia): it is the smallest continent, only one continent with capital i.e., Canberra


There are five oceans, on the Earth mentioned below:

  • Pacific
  • Atlantic
  • Indian
  • Arctic
  • Antarctic

 Note down: The South China sea has the maximum area among all the sea of the world


Rocks from the crust of the Earth. Basically rocks are mineral material. They are divided into three broad categories.

  • Igneous rocks: The Igneous constitutes 90% of the Earth’s crust
  • Metamorphic rocks: Original igneous or sedimentary rocks when subject to charge due to pressure or temperature, metamorphose into metamorphic rocks like slate, marble and other material etc.
  • Sedimentary rocks: These rocks are formed from the sedimentary deposit on the ocean beds, like gypsum, limestone etc.

Mountain peaks of the world:

  • Mountain Ranges:
Name of the mountain Continent
Himalaya-Karakoram Asia
Rockies North America
Alps Europe
Andes South America

Mountain peaks:

Name of Mountain Continent Height (In meters)
Everest Asia 8848
K2 Asia 8610
Kanchenjunga Asia 8590
Lhotse Asia 8500
Makalu 1 Asia 8470
Dhaulagiri Asia 8170
Nanga Parbat Asia 8130
Nanda Devi Asia 7820

Important Water Sourse of the world:

Lakes (natural):

Name Location
Caspian (also known as the Caspian sea) Iran, Azerbaijan, Russia and Kazakhstan
Superior (it is the largest water Lake of North America) USA/Canada
Victoria Kenya/Tanzania
Baikal Russia
Titcaca (it is the highest lake in the world) South America

Most Important Canals (Shipping):

Name of Canals Features Location
Panama Canal Its link the Pacific and the Atlantic Central America
Suez Canal Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea Egypt
Kiel Canal Between Baltic Sea and North America Germany

Important Rivers of the World:

Name of the River Length Location
Nile 6690 Egypt
Amazon 6570 Brazil/South America
Mississippi-Missouri 6020 USA/North America
Yangtze-Kiang 5980 China, Asia
Hwang Ho 4840 China, Asia
Niger 4800 Nigeria, Africa
Congo 4800 Zarie, Africa
Murray 3720 Australia
Volga 3700 Russia, Asia
Indus 3180 India, Pakistan, Asia
Brahmaputra 2960 India, Asia
Danube 2820 Austria, Hugary, Europe

Important World cities on river bank:

Name of city Name of River
London Thames
Rome Tiber
Paris Siene
Vienna Danube
Budapest Danube
Belgrade Danube
Baghdad Tigiris

An important Indian cites with river banks:

Name of city Name of River
Delhi Yamuna
Agra Yamuna
Kolkata Hoogle
Kanpur Ganga
Allahabad Ganga and Yamuna
Nasik Godavari
Indore Narmada
Lucknow Gomit
Srinagar Jhelum

Important Link:

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