Now here we are going to represent about Basic geographical facts asked in various competitive exams like UPSC, IAS, SSC, SSC CGL, CLAT and another exam. So those students are going to participate in an upcoming competitive exam must check this article.
Physical Geography important point:
Planets:The definition of planets, the revolving around the sun is called planets. There are total eight known planets.
- Mercury- mercury is closest to the sun and is the fastest planet to revolve around the Sun
- Venus- It is the Brightest and the hottest planet in all
- Earth- One only known planet to possess life
- Mars- mars is known as the Red planet. Explored for life by astronomers now, as it is having similarities with the earth
- Jupiter- Largest Planet of the all solar systems
- Saturn-it is the sixth planet from the sun and the second largest planet in the solar system.
Note- Pluto used to be a planet, but recently has been discarded as a planet and it’s no longer counted as a planet.
These are celestial bodies that move around the sun. Two most popular comets known, are as mentioned:
- Halley’s comet: It was discovered by British astronomer Edmond Halley, takes 76.1 years to encircle the sun. It was last seen on 9 February 1986.
- Smith-Tuttle comet- Huge comet heading on a collision course with earth on August 17, 2116.
Definition of Satellities, these are the bodies which revolve around the planets. Mercury and Venus have no satellites. Earth has only one natural satellite, the Moon. Jupiter has the maximum number of satellites.
Moon first planet of our solar system visited by man. On July 20, 1969, Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin were the first to reach foot on the moon, and between them, Neil Armstrong is the first person to have set foot on the moon.
Earth shapes defined is as an oblate spheroid, like a ball which is flattened at the poles.
Important point about Earth Planet:
- Distance from the sun almost 1, 49, 407, 000 km
- Total time taken by Earth to revolve around the sun: 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 45.51 seconds.
- Total Time taken by Earth for rotating on its own axis: 23 hour 56 minutes and approx 4.09 Sec.
- Earth is covered 70 percent by water and 30 percent by Land.
Movement of Earth:
- The earth revolves around the sun is an elliptical orbit. One complete revolution is called a year and this revolution of Earth causes changes of seasons.
- The earth rotates on its own imaginary axis also, simultaneously revolving around the sun. The earth moves from west to east. This causes day and night.
Note down– Duration of days and nights is equal at the equator
Solar eclipse: it happens when the Moon comes between the sun and the Earth, and its this effect hindrance is sun’s light, when viewed from the earth.
Lunar eclipse: When the Earth comes between the Moon and the Sun, which Shadow cast by the Earth on the Moon causes called Lunar eclipse.
- The Earth is encircled by a gaseous cover called the atmosphere. There are various gases in the atmosphere such as Oxygen, Nitrozen, Carbon Dioxide, Helium, Argon, Xenon, etc.
- As your knowledge, Atmosphere is divided mainly into four Layers:
- The troposphere is the nearest layer to the Earth’s Surface and is up to 15 km of height from the Earth’s surface.
- The stratosphere layer is from the end of 15 Km of Troposphere, stratosphere is present till 50 Km of the atmosphere
- Lies between 50 Km and 80 Km above the surface of the Earth.
- Above the mesosphere and extend from the 80 Km to 400 Km above the Earth’s Surface. Radio communication takes place because of this Layer.
- The Ozone layer is located in the stratosphere belt of earth’s atmosphere. The basic Ozone gas structure consists of three oxygen atoms.
- Basically Ozone gas is present in the stratosphere in the form of a layer, which extend from 12 Km to 30 Km above the Earth’s Surface.
- As you know that, the ozone layer is that it protects mankind from harmful radiations which comes from under spaces like Ultra Violet radiations from the sun
- But Now-a-days this layer is getting depleted, which can make skin cancer and damage vegetation.
- The main reason behind the depletion of this layer is pollution and pollutants present in the atmosphere like chlorofluorocarbons, which comes from the refrigerator, aerosols, air conditioners and solvent.
- The earth’s surface is made up of big land masses which are divided into seven continents.
The Seven Continents are as mentioned below:
- Asia: The Asia is the largest continent
- Africa- It is the Largest desert name as the Sahara.
- North America
- South America
- Oceania (Australia): it is the smallest continent, only one continent with capital i.e., Canberra
There are five oceans, on the Earth mentioned below:
Note down: The South China sea has the maximum area among all the sea of the world
Rocks from the crust of the Earth. Basically rocks are mineral material. They are divided into three broad categories.
- Igneous rocks: The Igneous constitutes 90% of the Earth’s crust
- Metamorphic rocks: Original igneous or sedimentary rocks when subject to charge due to pressure or temperature, metamorphose into metamorphic rocks like slate, marble and other material etc.
- Sedimentary rocks: These rocks are formed from the sedimentary deposit on the ocean beds, like gypsum, limestone etc.
Mountain peaks of the world:
- Mountain Ranges:
|Name of the mountain||Continent|
|Name of Mountain||Continent||Height (In meters)|
Important Water Sourse of the world:
|Caspian (also known as the Caspian sea)||Iran, Azerbaijan, Russia and Kazakhstan|
|Superior (it is the largest water Lake of North America)||USA/Canada|
|Titcaca (it is the highest lake in the world)||South America|
Most Important Canals (Shipping):
|Name of Canals||Features||Location|
|Panama Canal||Its link the Pacific and the Atlantic||Central America|
|Suez Canal||Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea||Egypt|
|Kiel Canal||Between Baltic Sea and North America||Germany|
Important Rivers of the World:
|Name of the River||Length||Location|
|Hwang Ho||4840||China, Asia|
|Indus||3180||India, Pakistan, Asia|
|Danube||2820||Austria, Hugary, Europe|
Important World cities on river bank:
|Name of city||Name of River|
An important Indian cites with river banks:
|Name of city||Name of River|
|Allahabad||Ganga and Yamuna|